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República de Colombia

Colombia

Colombiaflag
Flag
Anthem: "Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible"
ColombiaMap
Location
Capital: Bogotá
Official Language: Spanish
Demonym: Colombian
Government: Presidential republic
Leader: none
Formation: July 20, 1810
Area: 1,141,748 km2
Population: 32,852,935 (Jan 1990)
GDP: $165.73 (Jan 1990)
Currency: Colombian peso
Timezone: (UTC-5)


Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia), is a country located in northwestern South America.

Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest in South America (after Brazil, Argentina, and the Inca Empire), with an area more than twice that of France. It also has the third-largest population in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico

Colombia is a standing middle power with the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico. It is also one of the largest manufacturers in South America. Colombia is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonisers, African slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia's incredibly varied geography. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines

Geography and ClimateEdit

Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America. Located in the north-western region of South America, it is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by the Inca Empire; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Besides the countries in South America, the Republic of Colombia is recognized to share maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Central American countries of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Colombia has more physical diversity packed into its borders than any other area of comparable size in Latin America. The country is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

The climate of Colombia is determined by its proximity to the Earth's Equator predominating a tropical and isothermal climate, presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude; determined by mountain climate, temperature, humidity, winds; influenced by the trade winds and precipitation which is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Colombia is also affected by the effects of the El Niño and La Niña.

HistoryEdit

The History of Colombia has been characterized by the interaction of rival civilian elites. The political elite, which overlaps with social and economic elites, has shown a marked ability to retain the reins of power, effectively excluding other groups and social institutions, such as the masses and the military, from significant participation in or control over the political process. Members of the lower classes have found it difficult, although not impossible, to challenge or join the established elite in the political and economic spheres. Their subordination dates to the rigid colonial social hierarchy that placed the Spanish-born above the native born . Elite control of the military is the result of the "civilian mystique" that developed along with Colombian independence. That mystique has successfully restricted the military to non-political functions.

Economic modernization, supported by the coffee industry, became significant at the turn of the century. Modernization brought social changes and growing demands that produced various challenges to the dominant position of the traditional elite: the populist movements of the 1940s and 1970s, the military dictatorship of the 1950s, the rise of guerilla activity in the 1960s through the 1980s, and the emergence of drug traffickers as a major economic and social element in the 1970s and 1980s. The increase in industrialization and the migration of peasants to the cities accelerated the rate of urbanization and the formation of urban working and lower classes. The heightened need for infrastructure, both within a given city and among urban areas, spurred the growing involvement of the state in the economy, especially during the reformist period in the 1930s and 1940s. By the 1980s, the state had become an important investor in and manager of strategic sectors of the economy, such as energy resources, transportation, and communications.

The emergence of the National Front marked a significant break in the traditional political and economic patterns in Colombian society. Interparty conflict receded and was replaced in the 1960s by leftist subversion, which continued through the 1980s. The illicit narcotics industry emerged in the 1970s as a dominant economic force, altering the structure of the national economy and disrupting existing social and political relations. The leadership in both parties proved unable to address inflation, unemployment, and a skewed distribution of income. The post-National Front Liberal tenure bequeathed a triple legacy to the incoming Conservative government in 1982: guerilla activity, the corruptive drug trade, and an inequitable economy.

GovernmentEdit

Colombia is a Presidential Republic.

The Colombian government is divided into three branches of power; the executive, legislative and judicial with special control institutions and electoral institutions. The President of Colombia is the highest representative of the executive branch of government in Colombia and is also the head of state and head of government with supreme administrative authority, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Colombia.

LeadersEdit

Leader Method of Departure
Incumbent.
Ivan CordobaResigned.
Francisco De La CruzCurrently in Office.

EconomyEdit

Colombia's economy is fuelled by abundant natural resources, a highly literate population and relatively high-valued currency. Colombia's economy suffers from weak domestic and foreign demand, austere government budgets, and serious internal armed conflicts.

DemographicsEdit

The country has a diverse population that reflects its colourful history and the peoples that have populated here from ancient times to the present. The historic amalgam of the different main groups forms the basics of Colombia's current demographics: European immigrants, Indigenous Natives, Africans, Asians, Middle Easterners and other recent immigrants. Many of the indigenous peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remaining 700,000 currently represent over eighty-five distinct cultures. The European immigrants were primarily Spanish colonists, but a number of other Europeans (Dutch, German, Italian, French, Swiss, Belgian, also many North Americans) migrated to the Caribbean region in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and in smaller numbers Polish, Lithuanian, English and Croatian communities immigrated during the Second World War and the Cold War. Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century, and continuing into the nineteenth century. Other immigrant populations include Asians and Middle Easterners, particularly Lebanese, Jordanians, Syrians, Chinese, Japanese and Koreans.

CultureEdit

The culture of Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America characterized for having one of the most multicultural societies; a mixture of European, African, Native American and to a lesser extend Middle Eastern traditions that was later influenced by American culture and other Latin American cultures such as the Mexican culture,and Caribbean culture. Due to Colombia's geography and years of social and political instability, Colombian culture has been heavily fragmented into five major cultural regions which are also natural regions. Rural to urban migration, industrialisation, globalization and internal political, social and economic issues have changed Colombians' way of living throughout the years.

Inherited from the Spanish colonization, Colombia in general maintains a large base of Roman Catholic traditions which largely influences its culture and multicultural society despite the presence of other beliefs.

Diplomatic InformationEdit

Allies
Defense Pacts Trade Treaties Member of
Argentina (optional) Argentina

Costa Rica

OAS
Enemies
At War With Disputed Territories No Relations
None None Taiwan (Not Recognised)

Tibet(Not Recognised)


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